Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Failures Of The Enron Scandal Essay - 2042 Words

It seems like business morals and ethics are being whisked to the side in lieu of the ever growing demand of higher stock prices, rising budget goals and investor profits. Despite the increased regulation of corporations through legislation, such as, Sarbanes-Oxley, some corporations still find themselves struggling to maintain ethics and codes of conduct within the workplace. In reviewing the failings of the Enron Scandal, one can heed the mistakes that both individual and organization malaise, such as, conflicts of interest, lack of true transparency and the sever lack of moral courage from the government, executive board, senior management and others, contributed to the energy giant’s downfall. Beyond the Dreams of Avarice A key factor to Enron’s fall from grace, was due to the foibles of its corporate leadership, in particular, how certain executives were willing to overlook unethical behavior in lieu of profits. For example, Ken Lay, Enron’s Chairman, espoused the ideals that Enron had higher level of morals than the average company (Gibney, 2005). However, on several instances, he failed to enforce or show that level of commitment. In the Vahalla case, he allowed traders that were involved in manipulating and gambling the company’s earnings to continue their operations, despite being warned of their fraudulent behavior (Gibney, 2005). His justification, at the time, was that Vahalla was the only part of the company that was making any money (Gibney, 2005).Show MoreRelatedFailure And Fraud Of Enron1161 Words   |  5 Pagesdiffering characteristics such as failure and fraud that have been linked through time. However, although failure and fraud are connected in several vario us ways, one tends to come before the other. Generally failure is the absence of achieving success and fraud is committing an unlawful act that is driven by failure or to result in failure. Failure has driven fraud for countless reasons either for financial prosperity or personal supremacy. In many cases the direction of failure and fraud is mainly subjectedRead MoreJaclyn Givens. Kathy Osburn. Management 101. 5/8/17. The1400 Words   |  6 PagesJaclyn Givens Kathy Osburn Management 101 5/8/17 The Enron Era â€Å"Just as character matters in people, it matters in organizations,† says Justin Schultz, a corporate psychologist in Denver. The Enron scandal had a big exposure in 2001 confirming the big secret to the increase in billions. In July 1985, Enron formed the merger of Houston Natural Gas and Omaha-based Inter North. The Enron corporation was an American energy company based in Houston Texas. The corporation’s catastrophe in 2001 signifiesRead MoreEnron Essay1433 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Causes and Effects of the Enron Accounting Scandals Name: Do Minh Tam Class: MEP 100 Lecture: Karen Bird Date: December 24, 2010 Introduction Background From the 1980s until now, there have been a lot of accounting scandals which were widely announced on by media. The result of this situation is many companies were bankruptcy protection requests, and closing. One of the most widely reported emulation of accounting scandals is Enron Company. Enron Corporation is one of the largestRead MoreEnrons Business Failure Paper986 Words   |  4 PagesEnron Business Failure Paper Abstract The following paper will explain the reason of why Enron as a company failed. It will compare and contrast the contributions of leadership, management and organizational structures to the failure. Enron, was the worlds top electrical, communications, pulp and paper, and natural gas company. Unfortunately, in late 2001 the company started to unravel. Enron was on the brink of bankruptcy and even an attempt to be bought out by a smaller company calledRead MoreAffirmative Adaptation And Modernize Resulting From The Scandal1493 Words   |  6 PagesAffirmative Adaptation and modernize resulting from the scandal In today’s society the desolation of Enron has been one of the greatest disasters to hit a major United States corporation, nevertheless the actions of this deception let to Varity major future benefits. The effects of Enron without a doubt are primarily disadvantageous. However, although Enron has made illegal and unethical choices the company has paid the ultimate penalty by â€Å"Declared bankruptcy on December 2, 2001 afterRead MoreFailure Of Responsible Management : Enron Corporation1645 Words   |  7 Pagesinvestigate an example, which failure of responsible management. The Enron Corporation is an example, because Enron event is the typical case for organization failure of responsible management In the end of 2001, Enron scandal has been disclosure, Enron stock prices slumped, and its financial tricks was exposed. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began survey of company s records. Enron’s auditor ‘Arthur Andersen ‘destroys relevant documents. (Ailon, G. 2011) Enron was bankruptcy in DecemberRead MoreEnron Corporation : The Enron Scandal Essay1172 Words   |  5 PagesThe Enron Scandal The objective of an audit is to â€Å"obtain reasonable assurance† of the credibility of the financial statements of a company . However, in some cases auditors can fail to recognize – or intentionally ignore – misleading data within a company’s financial statements, leading to negative outcomes for lenders and investors. This report will discuss the Enron scandal in which the auditing firm Arthur Andersen LLP turned a blind eye to the fraudulent actions of Enron Corporation, leadingRead MoreThe Fall Of Major Telecommunications Company Onetel And Enron1319 Words   |  6 Pages OneTel and Enron were huge technology companies, dominating the competition that they faced although - everything changed. Both of these companies operated in the same era, coincedently both suffering financial collapse. The reasons were mainly because of failure to follow major accounting principles, lacking morals and lacking strong work ethics. If even a major corporation can fall into this â€Å"trap†, then avoiding doesn’t sound easy, although accountants can easily avoid scandals by following aRead MoreEvents Leading Up to the The Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay examples1203 Words   |  5 Pagescorporate and accounting scandals including those affecting Enron, Tyco internationals, Adelphia, Peregrine Systems, and WorldCom. The Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) adopted many rules in order to implement the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Enron Scandal escalated distrust amongst the shareholders, employees and government agencies. Thus, as a result the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed to protect the interest of all affecting parties. The Act is nearly a mirror image of Enron: the companys perceivedRead MoreCorporate Culture Of Enron And Bankruptcy1327 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The case study is about Enron and about their biggest failure that lead the company towards bankruptcy. Enron got bankrupt to the extent that was no point of returning back and reversing its wrong doings. The only thing that the company had to think about was how to return the losses of its creditors. Enron Corp. was left with $12 billion in assets which was to be distributed among more than 20,000 creditors. Around 80% of creditors of Enron backed the long-awaited reorganization plan

Friday, May 15, 2020

A Key Figure Of Benjamin Franklin - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 981 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/06/24 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Benjamin Franklin Essay Did you like this example? This paper will examine four main things Benjamin Franklin contributed in making America what it is today. First it will explain the great voyage he took in discovering America. Secondly, it will explain the treaties he signed to give America its independence. Thirdly it will go more into details about his discovery of electricity. Lastly his printing business and how it affected America. America was founded by Benjamin Franklin in in 1748, Franklin, had broadened his printing business all through the settlements and wind up sufficiently effective to quit working. Retirement enabled him to focus on open administration and furthermore seek after more completely his long-lasting enthusiasm for science. During the 1740s, he directed investigations that added to the comprehension of power, and developed the lightning pole, which shielded structures from flames caused by lightning. In 1752, he directed his celebrated kite test and shown that lightning is power. His thought was about electricity and lightning. Franklin saw a few likenesses between the two: They both made light, made noisy accidents when they detonated, were pulled in to metal, had a specific smell, and thats only the tip of the iceberg. In view of these perceptions, Franklin thought power and lightning were a similar thing. A couple of individuals shared his conviction, yet nobody had ever tried it. Frankl in additionally instituted various power related terms, including battery, charge and conductor. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Key Figure Of Benjamin Franklin" essay for you Create order Notwithstanding power, Franklin examined various points, including sea flows, meteorology, reasons for the normal chilly and refrigeration. He built up the Franklin stove, which given more warmth while utilizing less fuel than different stoves, and bifocal eyeglasses, which consider separation and perusing use. In the mid-1760s, Franklin developed a melodic instrument called the glass armonica. Writers, for example, Ludwig Beethoven (1770-1827) and Wolfgang Mozart (1756-91) composed music for Franklins armonica; be that as it may, by the early piece of the nineteenth century, the once-well known instrument had dropped out of utilization. In 1754, at a gathering of frontier agents in Albany, New York, Franklin proposed an arrangement for joining the settlements under a national congress. Although his Albany Plan was rejected, it helped lay the preparation for the Articles of Confederation, which turned into the principal constitution of the Unified States when confirmed in 1781. In 1757, Franklin made a trip to London as a delegate of the Pennsylvania Get together, to which he was chosen in 1751. More than quite a long while, he attempted to settle a duty question and different issues including relatives of William Penn (1644-1718), the proprietors of the province of Pennsylvania. After a concise period back in the U.S., Franklin lived fundamentally in London until 1775. While he was abroad, the English government started, in the mid-1760s, to force a progression of administrative measures to declare more prominent command over its American states. In 1766, Franklin affirmed in the English Parliament against the Stamp Demonstration of 1765, which necessitated that every single authoritative record, daily papers, books, playing cards and other written words in the American provinces convey an assessment stamp. Even though the Stamp Demonstration was canceled in 1766, extra administrative measures pursued, prompting regularly expanding enemy of English estimat ion and possible equipped uprising by the American settlers. Franklin came back to Philadelphia in May 1775, not long after the Progressive War (1775-83) had started and was chosen to fill in as a representative to the Second Mainland Congress, Americas administering body at the time. In 1776, he was a piece of the five-part advisory group that helped draft the Presentation of Autonomy, in which the 13 American settlements pronounced their opportunity from English guideline. That equivalent year, Congress sent Franklin to France to enroll that countrys assistance with the Progressive War. In February 1778, the French marked a military partnership with America and proceeded to give fighters, supplies and cash that demonstrated basic to Americas triumph in the war. As clergyman to France beginning in 1778, Franklin arranged and draft the 1783 Bargain of Paris that finished the Progressive War. As Franklinrs printing business prospered, he became increasingly involved in civic affairs. Starting in the 1730s, he helped establish a number of community organizations in Philadelphia, including a lending library (it was founded in 1731, a time when books werent widely available in the colonies, and remained the largest U.S. public library until the 1850s), the cityrs first fire company, a police patrol and the American Philosophical Society, a group devoted to the sciences and other scholarly pursuits. Franklin also organized the Pennsylvania militia, raised funds to build a city hospital and spearheaded a program to pave and light city streets. Additionally, Franklin was instrumental in the creation of the Academy of Philadelphia, a college which opened in 1751 and became known as the University of Pennsylvania in 1791. Franklin also was a key figure in the colonial postal system. In 1737, the British appointed him postmaster of Philadelphia, and he went on to become, in 1753, joint postmaster general for all the American colonies. In this role he instituted various measures to improve mail service; however, the British dismissed him from the job in 1774 because he was deemed too sympathetic to colonial interests. In July 1775, the Continental Congress appointed Franklin the first postmaster general of the United States, giving him authority over all post offices from Massachusetts to Georgia. He held this position until November 1776, when he was succeeded by his son-in-law. (The first U.S. postage stamps, issued on July 1, 1847, featured images of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington.) Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 to April 17, 1790) was an Establishing Father and a polymath, designer, researcher, printer, government official, freemason and negotiator. Franklin drafted the Statement of Autonomy and the U.S. Constitution, and he arranged the 1783 Bargain of Paris finishing the Progressive War. His logical interests included examinations concerning power, arithmetic and mapmaking. An essayist known for his mind and astuteness, Franklin additionally distributed Poor Richards Chronological registry, created bifocal glasses and sorted out the primary fruitful American loaning library.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparison of Symbolism of Kites in the Kite Runner and...

Comparison of symbolism of kites in the Kite Runner and Master Harold and the boys I am going to compare the symbolism of the kite in the play Master Harold and the boys by Athol Fugard and in the novel The Kite Runner by Khaled Hossseini. Firstly I will talk about the symbolism in both of the books separately. And then I will compare them to see the similarities and the differences. The kite symbol has two different meanings. In the Kite Runner the kite represents kite fighting and the blue kite that was the last opponent was the key to Baba’s heart. In â€Å"Master Harold and the boys† the kite is used to cheer up Hally when he was embarrassed by his farther. In the novel the kite was made by a professional and in the play it is made by Sam.†¦show more content†¦When Hally got to the top of the hill Sam moved down the hill a bit and held the kite up. The reason of that was because a black man was not allowed to be in the same park as a white person. Sam shouted Hally to go. This was the signal for Hally to run. Hally was impressed the ki te was flying and looping in the air. Hally couldn’t believe it. At last he felt happy again and was proud to have Sam as a friend. â€Å"It works, Sam! We’ve done it!† This quote shows how Hally is now happy again and Sam had succeeded in his job of making Hally feel better. The kite represents sad moments in the play. When Sam and Hally were flying the kite they tied it to a bench where they could sit and watch it fly. Sam had to leave â€Å"but I wanted him to stay†. This shows that Hally wants to share his happy moments with Sam. The problem is that in 1950 in South Africa rules were different and a black man was not allowed to sit on the same bench as a white man. â€Å"It was sort of sad to bring it down†. This explains that the idea of the kite flying in the air got him into a fantasy world and now that the kite is on the ground he is back in the reality. Hally asks Sam if they should do it again, make another kite and enjoy the moments as they shared last time. But Sam said â€Å"No. You can’t fly kites on rainy days which mean you can’t be happy when you’re sad. In ‘The Kite Runner’ the kite does not always symbolize happiness also it shows cowardice and betrayal. It shows thatShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesSUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL 24 Diagnostic Survey and Exercises 24 Personal Assessment of Management Skills (PAMS) 24 What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager? 28 SSS Software In-Basket Exercise 30 SCORING KEY AND COMPARISON DATA 42 Personal Assessment of Management Skills 42 Scoring Key 42 Comparison Data 42 What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager? 43 SSS Software In-Basket Exercise 43 PART I 1 PERSONAL SKILLS 44 45 DEVELOPING SELF-AWARENESS SKILL ASSESSMENT 46 Diagnostic Surveys for

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Free Essay Term Paper Example For Students

Free Essay Term Paper Boredom and Its Victims in Arthur Millers The CrucibleWhen bored, people tend to portray or act differently to either attract attention or change society. The girls in The Crucible are bored of Puritan life and want to do more to get more fun out of Salem life. Boredom led the girls to perform sins that the Puritan society disagrees with entirely. In The CrucibleBy Arthur Miller, boredom proves to be a catalyst for murder. The girls in Salem wanted more attention and more out of Puritan life. Being bored by following the strict Puritan society, the girls rebel against the traditional ways by dancing, singing, and laughing at prayer. What the girls hope to accomplish by rebellion is to draw attention and hope to change the ways the Puritans act or think. Boredom causes people to act differently to get what they want. With the girls in The Crucible, they wanted to show others that there are things that they want to do that will not send them to hell. This is true in todays world too with people getting bored of the same old tradition, so they change their clothes, looks, music, and attitude to change society. The girls getting caught dancing and singing made them to believe that their fun time was over. When asked about the dancing and the singing, they did what any child would do in fear and deny it. But soon the girls were getting bored with denying about the singing and dancing so the girls told more lies to gain attention from the others. With saying more lies, the girls got too much they could handle. With accusing someone of being a witch, they brought attention to everyone in Salem. This attention excited some of the girls because they were finally getting attention from everyone. Yet there are others who are afraid that all this attention will break right in front of them and expose the frauds they are. This is true in todays world where almost everyone in todays society has told a lie in order to either gain respect, attention, or to get higher position in the world. As the events in Salem began to progress faster and faster with the witch trials, so did the numerous lies that came from the girls. The girls thirst for attention led them to their thirst for murder. As each girl announce names of witches they claimed to see, they announced names of those they hated, disliked, loved or seek revenge upon them. This was their chance to get back at those who hurt them in the past. This shows the evil side of mankind, shows that mankind will seek revenge on the first chance he/she gets. It also shows that mankind would rather have dozens of people be killed then themselves be beaten or killed. It is human nature to protect ourselves from death at any cost. It shows here in The Crucible that the girls went too far and still decided to proceed having people killed instead themselves suffer the consequences of lying. In conclusion, boredom not only leads the girls to murder but also the Puritan society for following. Society never showed rebellion to the t raditional Puritan way, but followed in what the girls performed by dancing and singing. Then when the trials came along, almost all of Salem joined in with the girls because it was something different for them to do. It seems that the Puritan society and our modern society are the same with this issue. Both societies are afraid to do something different, but until a person or a group of people does it, then everyone follows the bandwagon. It shows us that society is the followers while the people are the leaders making the changes for all of us. .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 , .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .postImageUrl , .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 , .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5:hover , .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5:visited , .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5:active { border:0!important; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5:active , .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5 .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf9556ce3c59a8d7f0496ef79198bc6b5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The tasks to identity a low-rise domestic building and outline the key external features EssayBibliography:

Monday, April 13, 2020

School Leadership

Introduction In today’s era of heightened expectations, school leaders are in the hot seat to ensure effective and excellent educational outcomes. The multi-levelled pedagogic school leaders highly determine the mode of teaching students in schools and the effective application of the learning process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on School Leadership specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Not only are they curriculum leaders but they are also educational futurists, disciplinarians, instructors, assessors, analysts, field experts and society builders (Davies 2005). They are involved in the core running of the school and act as a go-between in case of any arising conflicts between the parents, students, teachers, education participants such as unions and the society itself. This requires them to not only be sensitive when meeting student’s demands and needs but to also be critical thinkers so as to deliver valid judgments based on logic. School leadership is currently a complex concept with most leaders failing to balance their roles. It is evident that they are heavily inclined towards school management and accountability hence disregarding the effective mode of impacting knowledge to students to ensure quality teaching and learning. The outcome greatly reflects the quality of the school leaders’ pedagogy and their ability to give credible teaching instructions to improve learning in schools. Teachers need to have adequate knowledge of how to teach students and be able to implement and design the school curriculum. The following paper will therefore discuss the current change in pedagogical and instructional roles that seem to create imbalance in their competing roles and how the same can be reclaimed. School Leadership Previous studies have attempted to define the concepts, models and practises that characterise the effect of leadership in educational outcomes. Several conte mporary leadership theories have come up as a result. According to Davies and Ellison (2001), the distributional and transformational leadership theories are examples of such theories.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These two theories have been discussed by many scholars in an attempt to draw an understanding on the nature of school leadership and how it affects learning and teaching in schools. They also create a link between the leaders and the teachers themselves with an attempt of establishing the student outcomes that is derived from this relationship. Though the study on effective leadership based on this theories have not been concluded, it is evident that school leaders have a big role to play. Student performance is therefore attributed to the influence impacted through effective leadership. Successful school leaders give support and knowledgeable instructions to the teacher s, a practise that develops their inner intellectual powers. In addition, they also implement an effective organisation model that helps them strike a balance in their competitive roles. The studies on educational leadership draws a clear conclusion that school leaders requires to be actively involved in the institution’s learning and instructional programs. Principals need to balance the instructional and pedagogical roles together with their managerial roles to ensure exemplary student performance. The main goal in any learning institution is assuring parents and the society in general that their children are receiving quality education. Though managerial and compliance accountability roles play a big role in running a school, student performance should be made the core business, a concept that is ignored by many school leaders. Leadership Crisis In order to discuss how school leaders can become instructional and pedagogical leaders rather than just mere managers, it is imp ortant to look at the challenges facing school leadership. There has been increasing demands for effective schools and the achievement by students is entirely based on the key roles played by school leaders. Leadership challenges have played a big role in the transformation of quality teaching and learning (Duke 2010). The school leaders need to address these challenges as a step of regaining the lost glory. One of the main challenge relate to the leadership styles adopted by the leaders.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on School Leadership specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most school leaders lead through manipulation that tends to intimidate teachers. A research conducted indicates that 80% of school management is characterised by dictatorial leadership (Duke 2010). This can be due to various reasons such as nepotism or favouritism by the leader. Dictatorial leadership can also be applied in instances where the le ader is involved in unscrupulous dealings and is afraid of being exposed by a certain teacher. In such cases, the dictatorial management style instils fear in such teachers who steer away from the leader’s affairs. This challenge begets teachers who in turn fail to perform in their role of impacting knowledge to students. The other challenge is the limited capacity by school leaders to qualify as effective leaders. There has been an increase in unqualified selection of leaders due to the lenient selection process. The mode of screening, selection and admitting the leaders have been ill-defined and lacking in its application. As a result, most school leaders are easily admitted based on their academic background only and not their knowledge experiences or skill disposition required to making an effective leader. In addition, there are inadequate training programs for principals. The training is important to upgrade their competence and qualification to effectively run a school . Lack of dialogue between leaders and other participants in decision making is also a leadership crisis that has led to a decline in students’ performances. Such leaders fail to take criticism from teachers, students or even the society itself positively. This leads to such leaders applying the direct approach instead of a facilitative approach while making their decisions. This approach is bureaucratic in nature and tends to leave out important factors that can result to a disastrous decision. The other challenge worth noting is the lack of ownership in the mission and vision statements of the school. These statements play a big role in achieving the goals set by the school’s administration. In most schools, leaders have failed to expose the vision and mission to both teachers and students as an inspiration for them to work towards achieving the set goals and objectives. Most school teachers are up in hands to retain their position thus compromising the performance o f students.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of engaging both students and the teachers, they are busy pleasing the school board in a bid to secure their managerial positions and disregarding problems faced by teachers to facilitate effective learning (Grace 1995). The quality of education has declined over the past few years. It is important to note that most of these challenges were not faced twenty ago hence they can be resolved. The challenges not only lead to the leader’s disorientation but also affect the teachers and the students as well. Instructional And Pedagogical Leadership Versus Administrative Leadership An oration by William Walker during a conference held by educational leaders in Australia gives a clear analysis of who qualifies as a pedagogical leader. Delivered by Viviane Robinson, the article seems to focus on educational leadership and their ability to give instructions rather than just being mere managers (Robinson 2007). The roles in this kind of leadership are differentiated from that of a school administrator in various ways. One distinctive role is the mode of discharging their administrative duties. While the administrators apply a rather strict approach, a pedagogical leader has clear set goals that involve all the participants. The latter is more involved in the implementation of the curriculum, monitoring process and evaluation of teachers and allocation of resources to make the program successful. They also encourage team work and transparency as opposed to their counterparts through delegation of powers to their juniors, a tactic that enhances learning growth. Recent definition of an instructional and pedagogical leader by Pont, Nusche and Moorman (2008) has shifted to include teaching and learning. Some of the scholars have further defined this kind of leadership as ‘learning leadership’. The community in such a learning environment uphold team work as the guiding principal. This entails constant meetings by staff members to discuss, reflect an d modify the learning process together as a team. To further avoid any future conflict that may arise, the members are armed with a problem-solving model to come up with a solution. The community creates a learning culture that leads to student’s success. Administrative leaders on the other hand are more attentive to the general running of the school as regards its finances, school projects and other factors affecting the general management of the school. They isolate themselves from the learning and teaching process leaving it entirely to the juniors to device their own curriculum. This leads to teacher’s laxity which in turn leads to a decline in students’ performances (Anderson and Cawsey 2008). Striking a Balance between the Administrative Role and the Pedagogical/Instructional Role For school leaders to be classified as effective leaders, they need to get deeply involved in the learning and teaching process while at the same time managing their administrati ve role. While this seems to be a challenging task, it is possible through application of various workable solutions. While teaching and learning has been termed as the core business in any learning institution, the school’s management needs to be kept running to ensure success in the said core business. Failure to effectively manage one can render the other one futile. Several scholars have proposed some workable models that can help strike a balance between these competing roles hence reclaiming the lost pedagogical and instructional roles of school leaders. This balancing model can be analysed through five strategic dimensions that play a big role in impacting quality knowledge to students. One of the dimensions is through promotion and active participation in teacher learning development. Crowther, Ferguson and Hann (2008) argue that a school leader needs to be actively involved in all activities pertaining to professional and developmental learning. This has proved to ha ve great impact on the student’s performance outcome. The school leader can be involved through formal or informal contexts. Formal context entails organising and participating in staff meetings and formal professional sessions. The informal context requires the school leader to not only initiate team building sessions that bring together all the members of the staff but to actively participate in them too. Team building session helps the members to identify problems that hinder the learning process and to come up with solutions to these problems through rigorous discussions. Scholars have suggested that such leaders who take this initiative begin to develop a focus in the learning and teaching process. They further get to learn their staff and how they operate. This helps the leaders to know the problems that the staff members are likely to face hence helping them with adequate support ranging from teaching resources to coming up with a valid timetable. Lastly, they learn to appreciate all the stages and time-line involved in the transformation process. The dimension not only involves itself in the learning process but also the administration role. The leader learns to involve the members of the staff in matters that affect the general running of the school hence helping to strike a balance between the two competing roles. The other dimension is through planning, evaluation and implementation of teaching curriculum. The school leaders need to be directly involved in the teaching process through regular attendance in classrooms. Recent study has indicated that giving a feedback to the teachers regarding their teaching tactics in class has played a key role in positive student outcomes (Mullen 2007). Such leaders play a vital role in coordinating an effective school curriculum to be used in all the levels. They also work together with staff members to plan, evaluate and implement their teaching curriculum. The curriculum also ensures a monitoring policy that closely follows the progress of student’s performance and evaluating the results in order to enhance future teaching programs. An effective teaching curriculum not only ensures exemplary performance but also help to create a good image of the school’s administration to the society. The image is an indication that the school head has the managerial abilities to run the school’s administration. Another dimension requires the leaders to come up with goals and expectations. This is by establishing an effective and workable vision and mission statement and to own it. The mission and vision statement encompass the goals and expectations set by both teachers and the students. It is therefore important to actively involve them in setting up these learning goals. Though it can be argued that this dimension plays a very minimal role in student outcome, it has significant learning impact to the students and staff by allowing them develop a specific focus. The school l eader is able to give priority to student achievement by ensuring that the goals are met and that the teaching curriculum correlates with the set school objectives. On the other hand, the goals and objectives also oversee the general running of the school by acting as the guiding principles. Strategic resourcing is also another dimension that the leader should actively be involved in. Strategic decisions concerning allocation of resources to aid in the learning and teaching process have an indirect impact in the student performance outcomes. The resources cover the school staffing and provision of teaching materials that facilitate the learning process. What is important is the ability of the leader to secure adequate resources that relates to the pedagogical set goals and objectives. The school leader on the other hand gains an additional skill to allocate resources required in the managerial role as well. The last dimension is to make certain that an orderly and supportive learnin g environment is maintained. School leaders should ensure a safe and caring haven for both its teaching staff and the students. The intervention mode by school heads to ensure such an environment helps to create a balance between the competing roles. Some of the interventions include setting up a standard discipline code, ensuring minimal conflicts that tends to disrupt the learning process and to protect the teaching staff from undue pressure from outside participants such as the parents or the school board. Implications Of The Dimensions The final question that requires to be answered is whether the dimensions play any key role in striking a balance in a leader’s competitive roles so as to ensure quality learning and teaching process. The dimensions seem to create a link between the leaders and other participants involved in the learning process. This creates an implication of team work that helps in solving problems. It further helps to strike a balance by ensuring key eva luation in student performances that effectively embeds positive experiences. The dimensions also include all the key areas in the school environment and serves as a focal point of leadership that ensures flexibility in affecting decisions made by the participants. Conclusion In order for school leaders to strike a balance between being both administrative and instructional/pedagogical leaders, they need first to focus on effective mode of leadership rather than the bureaucratic approach. The school head should then apply the dimensions in order to effectively get involved in the teaching and learning process on one hand and the managerial role on the other. This makes the heads partake the student’s performance as their core business hence meeting the ultimate requirement as an instructional or pedagogical leader. Reference List Anderson, M and Cawsey, C (2008) Learning for leadership: building a school of  Professional practice. Camberwell, Australian Council for Educatio nal Research Press. Crowther, F., Ferguson, M and Hann, L (2008) Developing Teacher Leaders: How  Teacher Leadership Enhances School Success. London, SAGE Publications. Davies, B (2005) The essentials of school leadership. London, Paul Chapman Publishing and Corwin Press. Davies, B and Ellison, L (2001) School leadership for the 21st century. A competency  and knowledge approach. New York, Routledge. Duke, D.L (2010) The Challenges of School District Leadership. New York, Routledge. Grace, R.G (1995) School leadership: beyond education management: an essay in  policy scholarship. Bristol, The Falmer Press. Mullen, C (2007) Curriculum leadership development: a guide for aspiring school  leaders. Sydney, John Wiley Sons Australia Ltd. Pont, B., Nusche, D and Moorman, H (2008) Improving school leadership: Policy and  practice. New Zealand, OECD Publishing. Robinson, V (2007) William Walker Oration: School Leadership and Student Outcomes  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Identifying What Works and Why. [Online] Available at: www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/2515/13723. This essay on School Leadership was written and submitted by user F1sher to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Leadership of General George S. Patton essays

Leadership of General George S. Patton essays Bearing, courage, decisiveness, dependability, endurance, enthusiasm, initiative, integrity, judgment, justice, knowledge, loyalty, tact, unselfishness; the fourteen written leadership traits. This is what every JROTC cadet is taught during his or her enrollment in the program. We learn how to lead, when to lead, and the little things we should know about being a leader and better citizen. We are given tasks to complete in a certain time and a team to complete the task with. Small things, maybe big things but it all has a purpose, to train us to be better leaders. Sometimes you have to learn things not by doing but by watching and assimilating. While I was researching military history a while back when I was in about 5th grade one person stood out, General George S. Patton Jr. Patton was a strong man, straight forward, and knew how to get the job done. Sure some might say that he was a little overpowering, but he still was one of the greatest leaders. He always stayed true to his word and men and never left their side. Even though he called them cowards, maggots, and just about every insulting thing that you could tell a soldier, they still followed him. He motivated these men, gave them confidence, and boosted their morale. An example of this leadership was Pattons actions during World War II. After the disastrous American defeat at the Kasserine Pass, Gen. Eisenhower knew that a hard driver was needed to recoup American morale and to force back the Germans. Eisenhower promoted Patton to lieutenant general and put him in charge of the 2nd Corps, which had suffered the defeat. Patton's first job was to restore the morale and discipline of the dispirited troops of his new command. He set about this mission with a vengeance. He began at the bottom by mandating strict enforcement of military rules governing hygiene and attire. He wanted his men to wear their ties into battle. Also, officers in the 2nd Corps were...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

American History and Society Through Music Research Paper

American History and Society Through Music - Research Paper Example The District judge and the Court of Appeal seemed to think that the school was in its right. The Supreme Court did not agree and reversed the decision with Mr. Justice Fortas giving the opinion of the court and Justice White and Stewart concurring. The majority based their opinions on the idea that the students could not be expected to leave what rights they had at the doors of the school and were not in any manner causing a disturbance. Those in dissent argued that the constitution did not protect students from any disruptive form of symbolic speech and Justice Black stated â€Å"And I repeat that if the time has come when pupils of state-supported schools, kindergartens, grammar schools, or high schools, can defy and flout orders of school officials to keep their minds on their own schoolwork, it is the beginning of a new revolutionary era of permissiveness in this country fostered by the judiciary.† (Tinker v. Des MoinesIndependent Community School District). Though Tinker has been used in various cases after it, courts are now beginning to take a view aside from that which was presented in this case.